USGS - science for a changing world

Alaska Science Center

white dothome: white dotproducts: white dotoutreach/media: white dotcontact us:   white dotinternal:

Products and Publications of the Changing Arctic Ecosystems Initiative

Walrus on an ice shelfMarine Ecosystem - Polar Bear and Walrus Response to the Rapid Decline in Arctic Sea Ice


McKinney, M. A., T. C. Atwood, S. Pedro, and E. Peacock. 2017. Ecological change drives a decline in mercury concentrations in Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Environmental Science and Technology 51(14):7814-7822. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b00812 [Details] [Full Publication]


Atwood, T. C., B. G. Marcot, D. C. Douglas, S. C. Amstrup, K. D. Rode, G. M. Durner, and J. F. Bromaghin. 2016. Forecasting the relative influence of environmental and anthropogenic stressors on polar bears. Ecosphere 7(6):e01370. doi:10.1002/ecs2.1370 [Details] [Full Publication]

Atwood, T. C., E. Peacock, M. A. McKinney, K. Lillie, R. R. Wilson, D. C. Douglas, S. Miller, and P. Terletzky. 2016. Rapid environmental change drives increased land use by an Arctic marine predator. PLoS One 11(6):e0155932. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155932 [Details] [Full Publication]

Beatty, W. S., C. V. Jay, A. S. Fischbach, J. M. Grebmeier, R. L. Taylor, A. L. Blanchard, and S. C. Jewett. 2016. Space use of a dominant Arctic vertebrate: Effects of prey, sea ice, and land on Pacific walrus resource selection. Biological Conservation 203:25-32. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.08.035 [Details] [Full Publication]

Fischbach, A. S. and C. V. Jay. 2016. A strategy for recovering continuous behavioral telemetry data from Pacific walruses. Wildlife Society Bulletin. doi:10.1002/wsb.685 [Details] [Full Publication]

Noren, S. R., M. S. Udevitz, and C. V. Jay. 2016. Sex-specific energetics of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) during the nursing interval. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 89(2). doi:10.1086/685454 [Details] [Full Publication]

Ware, J. V., K. D. Rode, A. M. Pagano, J. F. Bromaghin, C. T. Robbins, J. A. Erlenbach, and H. T. Jansen. 2015. Validation of mercury tip-switch and accelerometer activity sensors for identifying resting and active behavior in bears. Ursus 26(2):86-96. doi:10.2192/URSUS-D-14-00031.1 [Details] [Full Publication]

Rode, K. D., C. A. Stricker, C. Erlenbach, C. T. Robbins, S. G. Cherry, S. D. Newsome, A. Cutting, S. Jensen, G. Stenhouse, M. Brooks, A. Hash, and N. Nicassio. 2016. Isotopic incorporation and the effects of fasting and dietary lipid content on isotopic discrimination in large, carnivorous mammals. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. doi:10.1086/686490 [Details] [Full Publication]


Atwood, T. C., B. G. Marcot, D. C. Douglas, S. C. Amstrup, K. D. Rode, G. M. Durner, and J. F. Bromaghin. 2015. Evaluating and ranking threats to the long-term persistence of polar bears. USGS Open-File Report 2014-1254, 114 p. doi:10.3133/ofr20141254 [Details] [Full Publication]

Bowen, L., A. K. Miles, J. L. Stott, S. Waters, and T. C. Atwood. 2015. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Science of the Total Environment 529:114-120. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.039 [Details] [Full Publication]

Bowen, L., A. K. Miles, S. Waters, R. Meyerson, K. D. Rode, and T. C. Atwood. 2015. Gene transcription in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from disparate populations. Polar Biology. doi:10.1007/s00300-015-1705-0 [Details] [Full Publication]

Oakley, K. L., T. C. Atwood, D. C. Douglas, K. D. Rode, and M. E. Whalen. 2015. Changing Arctic Ecosystems: Updated forecast: Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions required to improve polar bear outlook. 2015-3042, 2 p. doi:10.3133/fs20153042 [Details] [Full Publication] [PDF file 656 kb]

Rogers, M. C., E. Peacock, K. S. Simac, M. B. O'Dell, and J. M. Welker. 2015. Diet of female polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska: evidence for an emerging alternative foraging strategy in response to environmental change. Polar Biology. doi:10.1007/s00300-015-1665-4 [Details] [Full Publication]

Taylor, R. L. and M. S. Udevitz. 2015. Demography of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens): 1974-2006. Marine Mammal Science 31(1):231-254. doi:10.1111/mms.12156 [Details] [Full Publication]

Van Hemert, C. R., P. L. Flint, M. S. Udevitz, J. C. Koch, T. C. Atwood, K. L. Oakley, and J. A. Pearce. 2015. Forecasting wildlife response to rapid warming in the Alaskan Arctic. BioScience In Press. doi: 10.1093/biosci/biv069 [Details] [Full Publication]


Carey, M. P. and C. E. Zimmerman. 2014. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Ecology and Evolution 4(10):1981-1993. doi:10.1002/ece3.1080 [Details] [Full Publication]

Noren, S. R., M. S. Udevitz, L. Triggs, J. Paschke, L. Oland, and C. V. Jay. 2014. Identifying a reliable blubber measurement site to assess body condition in a marine mammal with topographically variable blubber, the Pacific walrus. Marine Mammal Science In Press. doi:10.1111/mms.12186 [Details] [Full Publication]

Noren, S. R., M. S. Udevitz, and C. V. Jay. 2014. Energy demands for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 87(6). doi:10.1086/678237 [Details] [Full Publication]

Rode, K. D., E. V. Regehr, D. C. Douglas, G. M. Durner, A. E. Derocher, G. W. Thiemann, and S. M. Budge. 2014. Variation in the response of an Arctic top predator experiencing habitat loss: feeding and reproductive ecology of two polar bear populations. Global Change Biology 20(1):76-88. doi:10.1111/gcb.12339 [Details] [Full Publication]


Monson, D. H., M. S. Udevitz, and C. V. Jay. 2013. Estimating age ratios and size of Pacific walrus herds on coastal haulouts using video imaging. PLOS ONE 8:e69806. doi: 69810.61371/journal.pone.0069806.

Pagano, A. M., E. Peacock, and M. A. McKinney. 2013. Remote biopsy darting and marking of polar bears. Marine Mammal Science 30(1):169-183. doi:10.1111/mms.12029 [Details] [Full Publication]

Udevitz, M. S., R. L. Taylor, J. L. Garlich-Miller, L. T. Quakenbush, and J. Snyder. 2013. Potential population-level effects of increased haulout-related mortality of Pacific walrus calves. Polar Biology 36:291-298. doi: 10.1007/s00300-012-1259-3

Walworth, D., and J.M. Pearce. 2013. Data models to support integrated research in the Arctic. USGS Core Science Systems, Community for Data Integration Access Newsletter, v. 16 (1).


Jay, C. V., A. S. Fischbach, and A. A. Kochnev. 2012. Walrus areas of use in the Chukchi Sea during sparse sea ice cover. Marine Ecology Progress Series 468:1-13. doi:10.3354/meps10057.

Noren, S. R., M. S. Udevitz, and C. V. Jay. 2012. Bioenergetics model for estimating food requirements of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Marine Ecology Progress Series 460:261-275. doi: 10.3354/meps09706.

Oakley, K., M. Whalen, D. Douglas, M. Udevitz, T. Atwood, and C. Jay. 2012. Changing Arctic ecosystems—Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012-3131, 4 p.

Pagano, A, G. M. Durner, S. C. Amstrup, K. S. Simac, and G. S. York. 2012. Long-distance swimming by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea during years of extensive open water. Canadian Journal of Zoology 90:663-676. doi: 10.1139/Z2012-033.


Durner, G. M., J. P. Whiteman, H. J. Harlow, S. C. Amstrup, E. V. Regehr, and M. Ben-David. 2011. Consequences of long-distance swimming and travel over deep-water pack ice for a female polar bear during a year of extreme sea ice retreat. Polar Biology 34:975–984. doi: 10.1007/s00300-010-0953-2.

Jay, C. V, B. G. Marcot, and D. C. Douglas. 2011. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century. Polar Biology 34(7):1065-1084. (Supplemental Material - 240 kb pdf).


Amstrup, S. C., E. T. DeWeaver, D. C. Douglas, B. G. Marcot, G. M. Durner, C. M. Bitz, and D. A. Bailey. 2010. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence. Nature 468:955-958. doi:10.1038/nature09653.

Douglas, D. C. 2010. Arctic sea ice decline: Projected changes in timing and extent of sea ice in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1176, 32 p.


Webmap of polar bear radio tracking - The USGS has made available a map of polar bear satellite telemetry locations and sea ice conditions for the Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea. This map is updated monthly and can be found at:

Webmap of walrus radio trackingSince 2004, USGS has made available animated maps of walrus satellite telemetry locations and sea ice conditions in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. These maps are updated bi-monthly and can be found at:


Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
Page Contact Information:
Page Last Modified: January 11 2018 12:46:30.