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Long-distance swimming by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea during years of extensive open water

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Full Publication: http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/z2012-033#.UgP2Z22BXTo

Product Type: Journal Article

Year: 2012

Authors: Pagano, A. M., G. M. Durner, S. C. Amstrup, K. S. Simac, and G. S. York


Suggested Citation:
Pagano, A. M., G. M. Durner, S. C. Amstrup, K. S. Simac, and G. S. York. 2012. Long-distance swimming by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea during years of extensive open water. Canadian Journal of Zoology 90:663-676. doi:10.1139/z2012-033

Abstract


Polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) depend on sea ice for catching marine mammal prey. Recent sea-ice declines have been linked to reductions in body condition, survival, and population size. Reduced foraging opportunity is hypothesized to be the primary cause of sea-ice-linked declines, but the costs of travel through a deteriorated sea-ice environment also may be a factor. We used movement data from 52 adult female polar bears wearing Global Positioning System (GPS) collars, including some with dependent young, to document long-distance swimming (>50 km) by polar bears in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi seas. During 6 years (2004-2009), we identified 50 long-distance swims by 20 bears. Swim duration and distance ranged from 0.7 to 9.7 days (mean = 3.4 days) and 53.7 to 687.1 km (mean = 154.2 km), respectively. Frequency of swimming appeared to increase over the course of the study. We show that adult female polar bears and their cubs are capable of swimming long distances during periods when extensive areas of open water are present. However, long-distance swimming appears to have higher energetic demands than moving over sea ice. Our observations suggest long-distance swimming is a behavioral response to declining summer sea-ice conditions.

Keywords: polar bear, Ursus maritimus, sea ice, climate change, telemetry, swimming, behaviour, Beaufort Sea

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