Measures of Oxygen Consumption and Stroke Frequency of a Captive Subadult Female Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) while Resting in Water and Swimming and Diving in a Metabolic Water Flume, Oregon Zoo, 2017

Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Pagano, Anthony M. (ORCID:0000-0003-2176-0909)
Publication_Date: 2018
Title:
Measures of Oxygen Consumption and Stroke Frequency of a Captive Subadult Female Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) while Resting in Water and Swimming and Diving in a Metabolic Water Flume, Oregon Zoo, 2017
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Anchorage, AK
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center
Other_Citation_Details:
Suggested citation: Pagano, A. M., 2018, Measures of Oxygen Consumption and Stroke Frequency of a Captive Subadult Female Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) while Resting in Water and Swimming and Diving in a Metabolic Water Flume, Oregon Zoo, 2017: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P98IQWT4.
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/P98IQWT4
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Pagano, Anthony M. (ORCID:0000-0003-2176-0909)
Publication_Date: 2013
Title:
USGS Changing Arctic Ecosystems: The effects of declining sea ice on polar bear behaviors and energetic rates
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: website
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Anchorage, AK
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center
Online_Linkage: https://alaska.usgs.gov/portal/project.php?project_id=379
Description:
Abstract:
This dataset contains measures of oxygen consumption and stroke frequency from 1 captive subadult female polar bear (166.5 kg) resting in the water (n = 7 sessions) and swimming and diving in a metabolic swim flume with water circulated at approximately 0.6 km/hr during swimming and diving measurements (n = 6 sessions) in September 2017.
Purpose:
These data were collected to gain insights into the energetic costs of swimming in polar bears.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20170904
Ending_Date: 20170906
Currentness_Reference: observed
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Biocomplexity Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Animals
Theme_Keyword: Mammalia
Theme_Keyword: Mammalian physiology
Theme_Keyword: Energetics
Theme_Keyword: Kinematics
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NASA GCMD Earth Science Keywords Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Animals/Vertebrates
Theme_Keyword: Mammals
Theme_Keyword: Carnivores
Theme_Keyword: Bears
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: animals
Theme_Keyword: mammals
Theme_Keyword: carnivores
Theme_Keyword: vertebrates
Theme_Keyword: bears
Theme_Keyword: wildlife biology
Theme_Keyword: marine biology
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Taxonomic_Keywords: single species
Taxonomic_Keywords: animals
Taxonomic_Keywords: vertebrates
Taxonomic_Keywords: mammals
Taxonomic_Keywords: Ursus maritimus
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: database
Series_Information:
Series_Name: ITIS
Issue_Identification: TSN 180542
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: online
Publisher: ITIS-North America
Other_Citation_Details:
Retrieved May 2018; from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System online database https://www.itis.gov
Online_Linkage:
Taxonomic_Procedures: none
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subkingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Bilateria
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infrakingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Deuterostomia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chordata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Vertebrata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Gnathostomata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Tetrapoda
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Mammalia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Theria
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Eutheria
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Carnivora
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Suborder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Caniformia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ursidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ursus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ursus maritimus
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
None. Users are advised to read the data set's metadata thoroughly to understand appropriate use and data limitations. It is requested that the authors and the USGS Alaska Science Center be cited for any subsequent publications referenced to this dataset.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and physical
Address: 4210 University Drive
City: Anchorage
State_or_Province: AK
Postal_Code: 99508
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 907-786-7000
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: ascweb@usgs.gov
Data_Set_Credit:
The Oregon Zoo provided access to the subadult female polar bear in the study, trained the bear to rest and swim and dive within the metabolic swim flume, and assisted with data collection.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Pagano, A.M.
Originator: Cutting, A.
Originator: Nicassio-Hiskey, N.
Originator: Hash, A.
Originator: Williams, T.M.
Publication_Date: 20181101
Title: Energetic costs of aquatic locomotion in a subadult polar bear
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Marine Mammal Science
Issue_Identification: TBD
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: online
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12556
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
The oxygen analyzer and metabolic chamber were calibrated prior to data measurements with dry ambient air (20.95% O2) and calibrated daily with dry N2 gas. Stroke frequency was determined by a single observer. Reported values were cross-checked and verified with original records.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
All data presented fall within expectation for the experimental design.
Completeness_Report: Data set is complete for the information presented.
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Description:
Measurements occurred from 4 September to 6 September, 2017. Measurements were made within a sealed metabolic chamber (2.9 m × 1.4 m × 0.6 m) constructed of polycarbonate and reinforced with a steel frame (Carter2Systems, Inc., Hillsboro, OR, USA) that was mounted to the concrete walls of a 1.6 m deep pool. Across the swimming/diving trials, water was circulated at approximately 0.6 km/hr within the chamber using an electric motor (Fastlane, Endless Pools, Inc., Aston, PA, USA). Water was not circulated during resting trials. Fractional concentration of oxygen was measured by an oxygen analyzer. Air was pulled from a metabolic chamber using a vacuum pump (FlowKit Mass Flow Controller, Sable Systems International, Inc., Las Vegas, NV, USA) at 500 L/min. Sub-samples of air from the exhaust port of the chamber were drawn through a series of 6 columns, bi-alternatingly filled with desiccant (Drierite, W. A. Hammond Drierite, Xenia, OH, USA) and scrubbed of carbon dioxide (Sodasorb, W.R. Grace & Co, Chicago, IL, USA) before entering the oxygen analyzer (Sable Systems International, Inc.). The percent of oxygen in the expired air was monitored continuously and values were recorded once per second using Expedata Analysis software (Sable Systems International, Inc.). Air temperature in the chamber, water temperature, and relative humidity were averaged over each measurement session (Artisan Modular Thermo-hygrometer, RS-232, APT Instruments, Omaha, NB, USA). Barometric pressure was similarly averaged over each measurement session (Perception II, Davis Instruments, Hayward, CA, USA). Resting (n = 7 sessions) and swimming/diving (n = 6 sessions) data measurement trials were collected during independent intervals. During each measurement session the bear swam into the chamber and a resting measurement was recorded for a minimum of 10 min with oxygen consumption reported from steady state measurements before each swimming session. Following resting measurements, the water pump was turned on and the bear was enticed to swim and dive by dropping fish into the water column. Each swimming and diving measurement was recorded for a minimum of 10 min (mean = 11 min) with oxygen consumption reported from steady state measurements.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Lighton, J.R.B.
Publication_Date: 2008
Title: Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, NY
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Description:
Stroke frequency was measured as the complete power stroke of both forepaws using video from a high-definition video camera (Sony, Tokyo, Japan; HDR-CX260V, 1080 HD, 60p) positioned either above or in front of the flume and a second high-definition video camera (GoPro, San Mateo, CA, USA; Hero 3+, 1080 HD, 60p) positioned in front of the flume at the water line.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Fish, F. E.
Publication_Date: 1992
Title: Aquatic locomotion
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Book Chapter
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Mammalian energetics: Interdisciplinary views of metabolism and reproduction
Issue_Identification: 1st edition
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ithica, NY
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Other_Citation_Details:
Fish, F. E. 1992. Aquatic locomotion. Pages 34–63 in T. E. Tomasi and T. H. Horton, eds. Mammalian energetics: Interdisciplinary views of metabolism and reproduction. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Mean fractional concentrations of oxygen were calculated over the period of stable state measurements during either resting or swimming/diving measurement sessions. Mean stroke frequency was calculated over the entire swim and dive session.
Process_Date: Unknown
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: polarBear_swimEnergetics_oregonZoo_pagano_2017.csv
Entity_Type_Definition:
Laboratory experimental conditions, stroke frequency, and percent oxygen concentration measures from one subadult female polar bear (166.5 kg).
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Session
Attribute_Definition: A unique identifier for each experimental measurement session.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 13
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Behavior
Attribute_Definition:
Indicates whether the animal was resting or swimming and diving during measurements.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: rest
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Measurements were collected while the animal rested while either standing in the water or bracing itself against the walls at the water surface.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: swim
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Measurements were collected while the animal swam at the water surface or dove beneath the water surface within the metabolic water flume at water speeds of approximately 0.6 km/hr.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Postabsorptive
Attribute_Definition:
Indicates whether measurements were collected following an overnight fast or after the animal had eaten within the past 12 hours.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: yes
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Measurements were collected following an overnight fast.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: no
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Measurements were collected after the animal had recently eaten.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Stroke_Frequency
Attribute_Definition:
Average number of strokes over each measurement session in strokes/sec.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.190
Range_Domain_Maximum: 0.304
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: strokes/sec
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: NA
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
NA indicates the individual was at rest during measurements meaning no strokes were taken for a calculation to be made.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Author defined.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Air_Temperature
Attribute_Definition:
Air temperature within the metabolic chamber during measurements.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 21.75
Range_Domain_Maximum: 28.00
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees Celsius
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Water_Temperature
Attribute_Definition: Water temperature within the water flume during measurements.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 23.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 24.4
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees Celsius
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Relative_Humidity
Attribute_Definition:
Relative humidity within the metabolic chamber during measurements.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 61.35
Range_Domain_Maximum: 90.50
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: %
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Pressure
Attribute_Definition: Barometric pressure recorded during measurements.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 743.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 745.4
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mmHg (Torr)
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Flow_Rate
Attribute_Definition:
Measured excurrent flow rate at standard temperature pressure (STP).
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 500
Range_Domain_Maximum: 500
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: Liters/Minute
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Baseline_O2_Start
Attribute_Definition:
Fractional concentration of oxygen at the start of the experiment (i.e., with the chamber unoccupied, FI O2 [fraction of inspired oxygen in the air]).
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 20.949
Range_Domain_Maximum: 20.950
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: %
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Baseline_O2_End
Attribute_Definition:
Fractional concentration of oxygen following the experiment (e.g., with the chamber unoccupied, FI O2 [fraction of inspired oxygen in the air]).
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 20.803
Range_Domain_Maximum: 20.951
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: %
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Experimental_O2
Attribute_Definition:
Mean fractional concentration of oxygen during the resting or swimming/diving measurement (i.e., FE O2 [fraction of oxygen in expired air]).
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 20.641
Range_Domain_Maximum: 20.798
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: %
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Duration
Attribute_Definition:
Duration of the resting or swimming and diving measurement session.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author defined
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 10
Range_Domain_Maximum: 12
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: Minutes
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and physical
Address: 4210 University Drive
City: Anchorage
State_or_Province: AK
Postal_Code: 99508
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 907-786-7000
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: ascweb@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Authoritative source of access to the data.
Distribution_Liability:
Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Zip
Format_Version_Number: 19.0
Format_Information_Content:
Zip file containing the data in CSV file format and FGDC metadata in XML and HTML formats.
File_Decompression_Technique: Winzip legacy compression applied
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://doi.org/10.5066/P98IQWT4
Fees: None
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20180223
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Science Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 4210 University Drive
City: Anchorage
State_or_Province: AK
Postal_Code: 99508
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 907-786-7000
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: ascweb@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999

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