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ABOUT THE ALASKA
SCIENCE CENTER

SCIENCE OFFICES

CONFERENCES

USGS ALASKA DATA RESOURCES

OTHER ALASKA AREA
SCIENCE OFFICES

Brenda E. Ballachey

Title: Research Physiologist
Address: 4210 University Dr., Anchorage, AK 99508-4626
Phone: (403) 288-9184
Fax: (907) 786-7150
Email: bballachey@usgs.gov

Image of Brenda E. Ballachey

Education and/or Training

Ph.D.1985Oregon State University, Corvallis, ORAnimal Breeding and Genetics
M.S.1980Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, COAnimal Sciences
B.S.1974Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, COAnimal Science

Areas of Specialization and/or Research Interests

Population status and indices of population condition; population, physiological and ecological effects of oil exposure on marine mammals and coastal ecosystems; environmental toxicology, physiology and genetics of marine mammals.

Professional Experience

1990 - PresentResearch Physiologist, USGS, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska
1989 - 1990Biologist, USGS, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska
1987 - 1989Staff Officer, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
1986 - 1987Research Associate, Department of Chemistry, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota
1985 - 1985Instructor, Department of Animal Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
1981 - 1985Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Animal Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
1977 - 1980Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Animal Science, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado

Professional Activities and/or Memberships

Society for Marine Mammalogy
The Wildlife Society
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Significant Recent Publications

Ballachey, B. E., D. H. Monson, G. G. Esslinger, K. Kloecker, J. Bodkin, L. Bowen, and A. K. Miles. 2014. 2013 update on sea otter studies to assess recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1030, 40 p. doi: 10.3133/ofr20141030 Ballachey, B. E., J. L. Bodkin, and D. H. Monson. 2013. Quantifying long-term risks to sea otters from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill: Reply to Harwell & Gentile (2013). Marine Ecology Progress Series 488:297-301. doi:10.3354/meps10498

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, H. A. Coletti, G. G. Esslinger, K. A. Kloecker, S. D. Rice, J. A. Reed, and D. H. Monson. 2012. Long-term effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Sea otter foraging in the intertidal as a pathway of exposure to lingering oil. Marine Ecology Progress Series 447:273-287. doi: 10.3354/meps09523[PDF file 443 kb]

Bowen, L., A. K. Miles, M. Murray, M. Haulena, J. Tuttle, W. Van Bonn, L. Adams, J. L. Bodkin, B. E. Ballachey, M. T. Tinker, R. Keister, and J. L. Stott. 2012. Gene Transcription in Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris); Development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health. Molecular Ecology Resources 12(1):67-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2011.03060.x

Miles , A. K., L Bowen, B. E. Ballachey, J. L. Bodkin, M. Murray, J. A. Estes, R. A. Keister and J. L. Stott. 2012. Variations of transcript profiles between sea otters Enhydra lutris from Prince William Sound, Alaska, and clinically normal reference otters. Marine Ecology Progress Series. doi: 10.3354/meps09572

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, and G. G. Esslinger. 2011. Synthesis of nearshore recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill: Trends in sea otter population abundance in Western Prince William Sound. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project Final Report (Restoration Projects 070808, 070808A, and 090808), U. S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska.

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, and G. G. Esslinger. 2011. Trends in sea otter population abundance in western Prince William Sound, Alaska. Progress toward recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5213, 14 p.

Monson, D. H., D. F. Doak, B. E. Ballachey, and J. L. Bodkin. 2011. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population “sink” for sea otters in Alaska? Ecological Applications 21:2917–2932. doi: 10.1890/11-0152.1

Bodkin, J. L. and B. E. Ballachey. 2010. Modeling the effects of mortality on sea otter populations. USGS Scientific Investigation Report 2010-5096. 12p.

Ricca, M. A., A. K. Miles, B. E. Ballachey, J. L. Bodkin, D. E. Esler, and K. A. Trust. 2010. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 60(6):861-872. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.01.005

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, G. G. Esslinger, K. A. Kloecker, D. H. Monson, and H. A. Coletti. 2007. Perspectives on an invading predator—Sea otters in Glacier Bay, in Piatt, J.F., and Gende, S.M., eds., Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium, October 26–28, 2004. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5047:133-136.

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, K. A. Kloecker, G. G. Esslinger, D. H. Monson, and H. A. Coletti. 2005. Sea otter studies in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. 2004 Annual Report. USGS Alaska Science Center, Anchorage.

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, K. A. Kloecker, G. G. Esslinger, D. H. Monson, H. A. Coletti, and J. A. Estes. 2004. Sea otter studies in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. 2003 Annual Report. USGS Alaska Science Center, Anchorage.

Ballachey, B. E., J. L. Bodkin, S. Howlin, A. M. Doroff, and A. H. Rebar . 2003. Correlates to survival of juvenile sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1992-1993. Can. J. Zool. 81(9):1494-1510. doi: 10.1139/z03-121

Ballachey, B. E., P. W. Snyder, and T. Kondratyuk. 2003. Comparison of cytochrome P450 1A induction in blood and liver cells of sea otters. Exxon Valdez Restoration Project 01534 Final Report, 17 pp.

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, T. A. Dean, and D. Esler. 2003. Patterns and processes of population change in selected nearshore vertebrate predators. EVOS Restoration Project 423 Final Report.

Peterson C. H., S. D. Rice, J. W. Short, D. Esler, J. L. Bodkin, B. E. Ballachey, and D. B. Irons. 2003. Long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Science 302:2082-2086. doi: 10.1126/science.1084282

Ballachey, B. E., J. L. Bodkin, D. H. Monson, and P. W. Snyder. 2002. Sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Status of recovery 12 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Pp. 168 in K. Davies, A. Delach, L. Epstein, and M. Selden (eds.), Carnivores 2002. From the mountains to the sea: A conference on carnivore biology and conservation, 17-20 Nov 2002, Monterey, CA. Defenders of Wildlife.

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, T. A. Dean, A. K. Fukuyama, S. C. Jewett, L. McDonald, D. H. Monson, C. E. O'Clair, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2002. Sea otter population status and the process of recovery from the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill. Marine Ecology Progress 241:237-253. [PDF 629kb]

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, T. A. Dean, A. K. Fukuyama, S. C. Jewett, L. McDonald, D. H. Monson, C. E. O'Clair, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2002. Sea otter population status and the process of recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Pages 3A.1-3A.28 in L.E. Holland-Bartels (ed.), Mechanisms of impact and potential recovery of nearshore vertebrate predators following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council Restoration Project 99025 Final Report, Anchorage.

Bodkin, J. L., K. A. Kloecker, H. A. Coletti, G. G. Esslinger, D. H. Monson, and B. E. Ballachey. 2002. Marine Predator Surveys in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Annual Report to U.S. Natl. Park Service USGS Alaska Science Center, Anchorage.

Esler, D., T. D. Bowman, K. A. Trust, B. E. Ballachey, T. A. Dean, S. C. Jewett, and C. E. O'Clair. 2002. Harlequin duck population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Progress, process, and constraints. Marine Ecology Progress 241:271-286.

Esler, D., T. D. Bowman, K. A. Trust, B. E. Ballachey, T. A. Dean, S. Jewett, and C. E. O'Clair. 2002. Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) perspective. Pages 4.1-4.31 in L.E. Holland-Bartels (ed.), Mechanisms of impact and potential recovery of nearshore vertebrate predators following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council Restoration Project 99025 Final Report, Anchorage, AK.

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, T. A. Dean, A. K. Fukuyama, S. C. Jewett, L. McDonald, D.H. Monson, C.E. O'Clair, and G.R. VanBlaricom. 2001. Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) perspective: Mechanisms of impact and potential recovery of nearshore vertebrate predators following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part A. Sea otter population recovery. Pages 3A.1-3A.28 in L.E. Holland-Bartels (ed.), Mechanisms of impact and potential recovery of nearshore vertebrate predators following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Exxon Valdea Oil Spill Trustee Council Restoration Project Final Report (Restoration Project 95025-99025), U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage.

Monson, D. H., C. McCormick, and B. E. Ballachey. 2001. Chemical anesthesia of Northern sea otters: Results of past field studies. Journal Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 32(2):181-189.

Monson, D. H., D. F. Doak, B. E. Ballachey, A. Johnson, and J. L. Bodkin. 2000. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97(12):6562-6567. [PDF file 217kb]

Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, M. A. Cronin and K.T. Scribner. 1999. Population demographics and genetic diversity in remnant and translocated populations of sea otters. Conservation Biology 13(6):1378-1385. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98124.x [PDF file 548 kb]

Bickham, J. W., J. A. Mazet, J. Blake, M. J. Smolen, Y. Lou and B. E. Ballachey. 1998. Flow-cytometric determination of genotoxic effects of exposure to petroleum in mink and sea otters. Ecotoxicology 7(4):191-199. doi: 10.1023/A:1008930626834

Jay, C. V., T. L. Olson, G. W. Garner, and B. E. Ballachey. 1998. Response of Pacific walruses to disturbances from capture and handling activities at a haul-out in Bristol Bay, Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 14(4):819-828. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00765.x

Udevitz, M. S., and B. E. Ballachey. 1998. Estimating survival rates with age-structure data. Journal Wildlife Management 62:779-792.

Ballachey, B. E., and K. A. Kloecker. 1997. Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) collected from southeast Alaska. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill State/Federal Natural Resource Damage Assessment Final Report (Marine Mammal Study 6-2), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK.

Ballachey, B. E., and K. A. Kloecker. 1997. Hydrocarbons in hair, livers, and intestines of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the path of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill State/Federal Natural Resource Damage Assessment Final Report (Marine Mammal Study 6-3), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK.

Ballachey, B. E., and K. A. Kloecker. 1997. Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) collected following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill State/Federal Natural Resource Damage Assessment Final Report (Marine Mammal Study 6-16), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK.

Bodkin, J. L. and B. E. Ballachey. 1997. Sea Otter. Restoration Notebook. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. 8 pp. [PDF file 2.7 mb]

Scribner, K. T., J. Bodkin, B. Ballachey, S. R. Fain, M. A. Cronin, and M. Sanchez. 1997. Population genetic studies of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): a review and interpretation of available data. Society for Marine Mammology. Special Publication 3:197-208. [PDF file - 305KB]

Bodkin, J. L. and B. E. Ballachey. 1996. Monitoring the status of wild sea otter populations: Field studies and techniques. Endangered Species Update, University of Michigan 13(12):14-20. [PDF file - 1.7MB]

Cronin, M. A., J. L. Bodkin, B. E. Ballachey, J. A. Estes and J. C. Patton. 1996. Mitochondrial-DNA variation among subspecies and populations of sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Journal of Mammalogy 77(2):546-557. [PDF file - 359KB]

Loughlin, T., B. Ballachey, B. Wright. 1996. Overview of studies to determine injury caused by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill to marine mammals. Pages 798-808 in S.D. Rice, R.B. Spies, D.A. Wolfe, and B.A. Wright, eds. Proceedings of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill symposium. American Fisheries Society Symposium 18, 931 pp.

Rebar, A. H., B. E. Ballachey, D. L. Bruden, and K. A. Kloecker. 1996. Hematology and clinical chemistry of sea otters captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill State/Federal Natural Resource Damage Assessment Final Report (Marine Mammal Study 6-17), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK.

DeGange, A. R., B. E. Ballachey and K. Bayha. 1995. A guide for oil spills involving fur-bearing marine mammals. Chapter 14 in: T.M. Williams and R.W. Davis, Eds. Emergency Care and Rehabilitation of Oiled Sea Otters, Univ. of Alaska Press, 300pp.

Rebar, A. H. Lipscomb, R. K. Harris and B. E. Ballachey. 1995. Clinical and clinical laboratory correlates in sea otter dying acutely in rehabilitation centers. Veterinary Pathology 32(4):346-350. doi: 10.1177/030098589503200402

Ballachey, B. E., J. L. Bodkin and A. R. DeGange. 1994. An overview of sea otter studies. Pp. 47-59 in T. Loughlin (ed.) Marine Mammals and the Exxon Valdez. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. [PDF file - 356KB]

Lipscomb, T. P., R. K. Harris, A. H. Rebar, B. E. Ballachey and R. J. Haebler. 1994. Pathology of sea otters. T.R. Loughlin, Ed. In Marine Mammals and the Exxon Valdez, Chap 16. Academic Press 395 pp.

Mulcahy, D. M. and B. E. Ballachey. 1994. Hydrocarbon residues in sea otters. Chapter 18 in: T.R. Loughlin, Ed. Marine mammals and the Exxon Valdez. Academic Press 395 pp.

Lipscomb, T. P., R. K. Harris, R. B. Moeller, J. M. Pletcher, R. J. Haebler and B. E. Ballachey. 1993. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil. Veterinary Pathology 30:1-11. doi: 10.1177/030098589303000101.

Stegeman, J. J., B. E. Ballachey, J. Bickham, B. Hocker, S. Kennedy, H. Thompson and D. Vethaak. 1993. Implementation of biomarker-based studies. Chapter 3 in: D.B. Peakall and L.R. Shugart, Eds. Strategy for Biomarker Research and Application in the Assessment of Environmental Health. Springer-Verlag, Belgium.

Websites of Interest

Sea Otter and Nearshore Marine Ecology Research

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