Altman, R. B. 1986. Noninfectious diseases. Pp. 379–385 in Fowler, M. E., ed. Zoo and wild animal medicine, second edition. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
Altman, R. B., S. L. Clubb, G. M. Dorrestein, and K. Quesenberry. 1997. Avian medicine and surgery. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
Bailey, R., L. A. Barrie, C. J. Halsall, P. Fellin, and D. C. G. Muir. 2000. Atmospheric organochlorine pesticides in the western Canadian Arctic: evidence of transpacific transport. J. Geophys. Res. 105:11805–11811.
Blais, J. M., D. W. Schindler, D. C. G. Muir, L. E. Kimpe, D. B. Donald, and B. Rosenberg. 1998. Accumulation of persistent organochlorine compounds in mountains of western Canada. Nature 395:585–588.
Chaplin, S. B. 1974. Daily energetics of the Black-capped Chickadee, Parus atricapillus, in winter. J. Comp. Physiol. B. 89:321–330.
Chaplin, S. B. 1976. The physiology of hypothermia in the Black-capped Chickadee Parus atricapillus. J. Comp. Physiol. B. 112:335–344.
Craves, J. A. 1994. Passerines with deformed bills. N. Am. Bird Bander 19:14-18.
Custer, T. W., J. W. Bickham, T. B. Lyne, T. Lewis, L. A. Ruedas, C. M. Custer, and M. J. Melancon. 1994. Flow cytometry for monitoring contaminant exposure in Black-crowned Night Herons. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 27:176-179.
Easton, M. 1999. A report to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service on an investigation of DNA damage in Black-capped Chickadees. Unpublished report. International EcoGen, Inc., North Vancouver, BC.
Fletcher, O. J., and T. Abdul-Aziz. 2008. Avian Histopathology. 3rd edition. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Jacksonville, FL. 438 p.
Fox, G. A., A. P. Gilman, D. B. Peakall, and F. W. Anderka. 1978. Behavioral abnormalities of nesting Lake Ontario gulls. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:477–483.
Gilbertson, M., T. Kubiak, J. Ludwig, and G. Fox. 1991. Great Lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformities syndrome (GLEMEDS) in colonial fish-eating birds: similarities to chick-edema disease. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 33:455–520.
Haegele, M. A., and R. H. Hudson. 1977. Reduction of courtship behavior induced by DDE in male Ringed Turtle Doves. Wilson Bull. 89:593–601.
Harrison, G. J., and L. R. Harrison. 1986. Nutritional diseases. Pp. 397–407 in Harrison, G. J., and L. R. Harrison, eds. Clinical avian medicine and surgery. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
Hitchcock, C. L., and D. F. Sherry. 1990. Long-term memory for cache sites in the Black-capped Chickadee. Anim. Behav. 40:701–712.
Hoffman, D. J., H. M. Ohlendorf, and T. W. Aldrich. 1988. Selenium teratogenesis in natural populations of aquatic birds in central California. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17:519–525.
Kuiken, T., G. A. Fox, and K. L. Danesik. 1999. Bill malformations in Double-crested Cormorants with low exposure to organochlorines. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18:2908–2913.
Ludwig, J. P., H. Kurita Matsuba, H. J. Auman, M. E. Ludwig, C. L. Summer, J. P. Glesy, D. E. Tillitt, and P. D. Jones. 1996. Deformities, PCBs, and TCDD-equivalents in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) of the upper Great Lakes 1986–1991: testing a cause-effect hypothesis. J. Great Lakes Research 22:172–197.
McCarty, J. P., and A. L. Secord. 1999. Nest-building behavior in PCB-contaminated Tree Swallows. Auk 116:55–63.
Ohlendorf, H. M., D. J. Hoffman, M. K. Saiki, and T. W. Aldrich. 1986. Embryonic mortality and abnormalities of aquatic birds: apparent impacts by selenium from irrigation drainwater. Sci. Total Environ. 52:49–63.
Pomeroy, D. E. 1962. Birds with abnormal bills. Brit. Birds 55:48-72.
Pravosudov, V. V., and N. S. Clayton. 2002. A test of the adaptive specialization hypothesis: population differences in caching, memory, and the hippocampus in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapilla). Behav. Neuroscience 116:515–522.
Pravosudov, V. V., and J. R. Lucas. 2000. The costs of being cool: a dynamic model of nocturnal hypothermia by small food-caching birds in winter. J. Avian Biol. 32:463–472.
Ritchie, B. W., G. J. Harrison, and L. R. Harrison. 1994. Avian medicine: principles and application. Wingers Publishing, Inc., Lake Worth, FL.
Sharbaugh, S. M. 2001. Seasonal acclimatization to extreme climatic conditions by Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) in interior Alaska (64° N). Physiolog. Biochem. Zool. 74:568–575.
Smith, S. M. 1991. The Black-capped Chickadee: behavioral ecology and natural history. Comstock Publ. Assoc., Ithaca, NY.
Smith, S. M. 1993. Black-capped Chickadee. In Poole, A., P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, No. 39. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, DC.
Tully, T. N., Jr., M. P. C. Lawton, and G. M. Dorrestein. 2000. Avian medicine. Reprinted in 2003. Butterworth Heinemann, New York.
West, G. C. 1959. Effects of high air temperature on the bill and claw keratin structures of the Tree Sparrow. Auk 76:534-537.